Warschauer’s Analysis (Kern & Warschauer, 2000; Warschauer, 1996; Warschauer, 2004) (*Note: the three stages have not occurred in a rigid sequence. As each new stage has emerged, previous stages continue.)  Structural / Behavioristic CALL (1960s -1970s) View of Language: Structural (a formal structural system)English Teaching Paradigm: Grammar-Translation & Audio-lingual Principal Use of Computers: Drill and Practice Principal Objective: Accuracy Characteristics: Repeated exposure to the same material is believed to be beneficial or even essential to learning.

A computer is ideal for carrying out repeated drills, since the machine i) does not get bored with presenting the same material and ii) it can provide immediate non-judgmental feedback. A computer is used as a tutor, presenting material and feedback on an individualized basis, allowing students to proceed at their own pace and freeing up class time for other activities.  Communicative / Cognitive CALL (1980s -1990s) View of Language: Cognitive (a mentally constructed system through interaction) English Teaching Paradigm: Communicative Language Teaching Principal Use of Computers: Communicative Exercises (to practice language use; non-drill format) Principal Objective: Fluency Characteristics: Grammar is taught implicitly rather than explicitly. Computers are used to stimulate discussion, writing or critical thinking.

Students are encouraged to generate original utterances rather than just manipulate prefabricated language. The programs avoid telling students that they are wrong and are flexible to a variety of student responses. Computers are used as a tool (e.g., word processors, spelling and grammar checkers, and concordancers) and the target language is used exclusively.  Integrative / Sociocognitive / Socioconstructive CALL (1990s -present) View of Language: Sociocognitive (developed in social interaction through discourse communities) English Teaching Paradigm: Content-based & ESP/EAP Principal Use of Computers: Authentic Discourse (to perform real-life tasks) Principal Objective: Agency (*definition: “the satisfying power to take meaningful action and see the results of our decisions and choices” Murray, 1997, p. 126)

Two types: Multimedia CALL (CD-ROMs) and Web-based CALL (on the Internet)

  1. Multimedia CALL Characteristics: They create a more authentic learning environment using different media. Language skills are easily integrated through multimedia. Students have a high degree of control over their learning through hypermedia. It facilitates a principle focus on the content without sacrificing a secondary focus on language form.
  2. Web-based CALL Characteristics: CMC –It provides authentic synchronous and asynchronous communication channels. Language learners can communicate directly, inexpensively, and conveniently with other learners or native speakers of the target language at any time and in any place. CMC can be carried out in several forms; it can be one-to-one, one-to-many, or many-to-one.
  3. The Web –Students can search through millions of files around the world within minutes to locate and access authentic materials exactly tailored to their own personal interests. Students can use the Web to publish their texts or multimedia materials to share with partner classes or with the general public.